# Type You an Idris – Part 1: Warmup

## Introduction

I’ve personally struggled with properly understanding the internals of Idris2. By “properly”, I mean: knowing where to look when I encounter errors, understanding what people in the Idris community refer to when discussing certain concepts and parts of Idris, knowing what the intermediary representations are for implementing custom backends, that kind of stuff. Every time I’ve encountered these in the past, I’ve gone “I really ought to learn this at some point!”, and then promptly gotten distracted by a project or some reading I was doing.

So now, just short of 2 years into my PhD, armed with at least some understanding of the underlying concepts and terms, I’ve decided to try and jump back in to Edwin’s course from the Scottish Programming Language and Verification Summer School (SPLV) in 2020, which has you implement TinyIdris — a scaled down version of full Idris. When I attended this live, I hadn’t even technically started yet, so the whole thing was a bit overwhelming and above my level; hopefully this time it’s manageable.

If you’re also confused, or just want to know more, come along for the ride!

(oh, and in case you just want to watch the course, it is on this YouTube playlist)

## Setting up

First, we’ll need a copy of the starting source code for TinyIdris. Use git to clone it to a directory of your choice (I’ve gone with splv20-tinyidris):

$git clone git@github.com:edwinb/splv20 splv20-tinyidris  Next, if you’re running a reasonably recent version of Idris2 (⩾ v0.5.0), you’ll need to apply this patch using git apply from the root of the directory where you checked out the repository. The reason for is that there were a number of changes in v0.5.0 which meant the following needed fixed in TinyIdris before it would even build: • Data.Strings has been renamed to Data.String. • The type k of kind is used in numerous places without being runtime accessible. • A lot of functions discarded their result implicitly in do notation, which is no longer allowed (and we can’t just stick an ignore in front because, for performance reasons, Core is not an implementation of Monad). • Data.List1.toList has been generalised to Prelude.Foldable.toList (so just toList). • Data.List1 now uses ::: as a constructor, not ::, meaning that we can’t pattern-match on [p'] or similar since it desugars to p' :: []. Instead, we need to match on (p' ::: []). There were also some similar problems in terms of constructing and returning new List1s. • Show is now total, but this introduces some… difficulties when implementing it for certain datatypes. A solution is to just stick a covering at the top of the function declaration. • A couple of functions in Core.Env use tm from Weaken tm without declaring that tm is implicit and with ω-multiplicity (runtime accessible). • Updating records via the record { field = val } r  syntax is deprecated in favour of { field := val } r  and similar for record { field$= fun } r


With the patch applied, we’re ready to build TinyIdris, when we eventually get to that. For now, let’s start with the Warmup Exercises.

(note: in this post, I’ll assume you’re familiar with interactive editing since it makes life so much easier. If you’re not, check out the Type-Development with Idris book, or the Idris editor wiki.)

## Exercise 1 - Equalities

This exercise is just to get into Idris again: A bit of equality and proofs.

### Part 1: Name equality

First, we need to write an Eq Name implementation. Here, the interactive editing can help us a lot: Let’s start by giving a base definition of == (I prefer to implement these like any other function, i.e. putting == in parentheses. If you prefer infix notation, then by all means use that):

Eq Name where
(==) n1 n2 = ?eq_rhs


Case-splitting on n1 and then on n2 gives us:

Eq Name where
(==) (UN x)   (UN y)   = ?eq_rhs_2
(==) (UN x)   (MN y z) = ?eq_rhs_3
(==) (MN x y) (UN z)   = ?eq_rhs_4
(==) (MN x y) (MN z w) = ?eq_rhs_5


I hope you’ll agree that a sensible definition of Eq Name is that it only makes sense to compare user-written names and machine-generated names respectively; no cross-comparing. So let’s delete lines 3 and 4, and introduce a catch-all pattern for those cases (and rename the constructor arguments slightly, to make it easier to see what’s going on):

Eq Name where
(==) (UN x)   (UN y)   = ?eq_rhs_2
(==) (MN x i) (MN y j) = ?eq_rhs_5
(==) _        _        = False


Now all that remains is to fill in the definitions. UNs (User written Names) are equal iff their names match, and MNs (Machine written Names) are equal iff their names and number match:

Eq Name where
(==) (UN x)   (UN y)   = x == y
(==) (MN x i) (MN y j) = x == y && i == j
(==) _        _        = False


### Part 2: Provably equal names

Proving that two Names are equal is a bit more complicated. Although, thankfully, this is not a DecEq (decidable equality) implementation, which means we don’t need to prove how it is impossible for the Names to be equal.

If you are uncertain about proofs, DecEq, etc…

If you are uncertain about DecEq, proofs, and contras, I’ve written an intro (well, more of a complete explanation) to proof-by-datatype and decidable equality which you can find in this blog post.

Again, start by interactively generating a definition, then case-splitting on the arguments, and introducing a generic pattern match for different types of Names:

nameEq : (x : Name) -> (y : Name) -> Maybe (x = y)
nameEq (UN x)   (UN y)   = ?nameEq_rhs_2
nameEq (MN x i) (MN y j) = ?nameEq_rhs_5
nameEq _        _        = Nothing


Let’s start with UNs. Idris comes with built-in decidable equality for Strings, so let’s use that! If two names’ strings are decidedly equal, then the Names must be too. Recall that Refl is a proof of equality, and that rewrite lets us use proofs to transform the type of the right hand side:

nameEq : (x : Name) -> (y : Name) -> Maybe (x = y)
nameEq (UN x)   (UN y)   =
case decEq x y of
(Yes prf)   => rewrite prf in Just Refl
(No contra) => Nothing

nameEq (MN x i) (MN y j) = ?nameEq_rhs_5
nameEq _        _        = Nothing


We can use a similar approach with MNs. It’ll be a bit longer, since it’ll require 2 case-blocks and rewrites, but you should hopefully already have guessed its layout. Here it is:

nameEq : (x : Name) -> (y : Name) -> Maybe (x = y)
nameEq (UN x)   (UN y)   =
case decEq x y of
(Yes prf)   => rewrite prf in Just Refl
(No contra) => Nothing

nameEq (MN x i) (MN y j) =
case decEq x y of
(Yes prfXY) => case decEq i j of
(Yes prfIJ) =>
rewrite prfXY in rewrite prfIJ in Just Refl
(No contra) => Nothing
(No contra) => Nothing

nameEq _        _        = Nothing


### Part 3: Decidably equal names

Remember how I just said we thankfully didn’t have to implement DecEq Name? Psych! That’s part 3 ^^

Let’s start as usual (case-splitting, etc.):

DecEq Name where
decEq (UN x)   (UN y)   = ?decEq_rhs_2
decEq (UN x)   (MN y j) = ?decEq_rhs_3
decEq (MN x i) (UN y)   = ?decEq_rhs_4
decEq (MN x i) (MN y j) = ?decEq_rhs_5


If we take the same approach as for nameEq, we see the problem:

DecEq Name where
decEq (UN x)   (UN y)   =
case decEq x y of
(Yes prf)   => rewrite prf in Yes Refl
(No contra) => No ?decEq_rhs_7

decEq (UN x)   (MN y j) = ?decEq_rhs_3
decEq (MN x i) (UN y)   = ?decEq_rhs_4
decEq (MN x i) (MN y j) = ?decEq_rhs_5


The problem is that the type of ?decEq_rhs_7 is UN x = UN y -> Void, i.e. a proof that if the two names are equal, then we have a contradiction; in other words, a proof that the two names cannot be equal. However, we only have a proof that their internal strings differ. Sounds like we need a helper function! Rename the ?decEq_rhs_7 hole to ?unStringsDiffer and interactively lift it to a new function:

unStringsDiffer : (contra : x = y -> Void) -> (prf : UN x = UN y) -> Void


This lemma is trivial enough that Idris can actually figure it out from the type declaration. With your text cursor on unStringsDiffer, ask Idris to interactively generate a definition:

unStringsDiffer : (contra : x = y -> Void) -> (prf : UN x = UN y) -> Void
unStringsDiffer contra Refl = contra Refl


It might look a bit odd at first because the arguments to Refl are implicit, but trust the type-checker that it is a valid counter-proof. Now we just slot it into the definition from earlier:

DecEq Name where
decEq (UN x)   (UN y)   =
case decEq x y of
(Yes prf)   => rewrite prf in Yes Refl
(No contra) => No (unStringsDiffer contra)

decEq (UN x)   (MN y j) = ?decEq_rhs_3
decEq (MN x i) (UN y)   = ?decEq_rhs_4
decEq (MN x i) (MN y j) = ?decEq_rhs_5


We’ll come back to the cross-comparing cases in a bit. First, let’s handle MNs (I’ll be omitting the preceding definitions from hereon, for brevity):

  decEq (MN x i) (MN y j) =
case decEq x y of
(Yes prfXY) => rewrite prfXY in
case decEq i j of
(Yes prfIJ) => rewrite prfIJ in Yes Refl
(No contra) => No ?mnNumbersDiffer
(No contra) => No ?mnStringsDiffer


You might have noticed that I decided to rewrite before the second case-block here. This is to save a bit of space, and because if we now look at the type of ?mnNumbersDiffer we get:

mnNumbersDiffer : MN y i = MN y j -> Void


By using the rewrite outside the case-block, Idris knows that the names are the same, but that the numbers might not be; i.e. that the numbers are the only possible difference. This makes for slightly nicer logic/reasoning in my opinion (although, as we’ll see shortly, it doesn’t technically matter). If we’d used the rewrite inside the case-block, we’d get:

mnNumbersDiffer : MN x i = MN y j -> Void


Here, although we, the human, know that we’re under a (Yes prfXY)-case, we have never actually applied that to the terms we’re working with, so Idris doesn’t know that the strings x and y are the same and that only i and j might differ.

If we now lift both the holes, making sure to lift these all the way above the DecEq Name declaration, we’ll get some useful lemma types from which we can generate definitions:

mnNumbersDiffer : x = y -> (i = j -> Void) -> MN y i = MN y j -> Void

mnStringsDiffer : (x = y -> Void) -> MN x i = MN y j -> Void


For mnNumbersDiffer, you’ll notice that Idris has included more information than we need: the proof that x = y. This is because the hole-lifting functionality uses a “better safe than sorry” approach, including as much information from the context where the hole was as it can. Refine the types a bit (and name the arguments, just for neatness) to get:

mnNumbersDiffer : (contra : i = j -> Void) -> (prf : MN _ i = MN _ j) -> Void

mnStringsDiffer : (contra : x = y -> Void) -> (prf : MN x _ = MN y _) -> Void


Like with unStringsDiffer, these are trivial enough that Idris can generate their definitions:

mnNumbersDiffer : (contra : i = j -> Void) -> (prf : MN _ i = MN _ j) -> Void
mnNumbersDiffer contra Refl = contra Refl

mnStringsDiffer : (contra : x = y -> Void) -> (prf : MN x _ = MN y _) -> Void
mnStringsDiffer contra Refl = contra Refl


The underscores in the types here are why I said that the first rewrite doesn’t technically matter for the No case: The mnNumbersDiffer lemma holds without needing any info about the strings.

Coming back to the cross-comparing cases. To us, clearly we cannot construct an instance of Refl for these, since MN takes more arguments than UN. However, Idris doesn’t know this (yet)! Start by adding No to both instances:

  decEq (UN x)   (MN y j) = No ?decEq_rhs_3
decEq (MN x i) (UN y)   = No ?decEq_rhs_4


If we now look at the type of ?decEq_rhs_3 we see that need some way of saying that UN x = MN y j -> Void. Having something which cannot be constructed is known as that thing being Uninhabited, with its construction resulting in something absurd (i.e. if we constructed it, we clearly broke the rules somehow). We can sketch the two Uninhabited implementations:

Uninhabited ((UN _) = (MN _ _)) where
uninhabited prf = ?un_mn_uninhabited

Uninhabited ((MN _ _) = (UN _)) where
uninhabited prf = ?mn_un_uninhabited


Now, if we simply case-split on prf in each definition, Idris generates an impossible pattern for both:

Uninhabited ((UN _) = (MN _ _)) where
uninhabited Refl impossible

Uninhabited ((MN _ _) = (UN _)) where
uninhabited Refl impossible


The impossible keyword means that there is no way to make the expression type-check. Which is correct: there is no way we pass arguments to Refl which make UN be identical to MN.

Having Uninhabited implementations allows us to use absurd to finish off the DecEq Name implementation:

  decEq (UN x)   (MN y j) = No absurd

decEq (MN x i) (UN y)   = No absurd


Together with all the previous definitions, we can reload and confirm that DecEq Name type-checks and that there are no holes left.

Now, let’s move on to slightly more relevant exercises.

## Exercise 2 - Scope manipulation

### Part 1: Variable removal

The first part of the scope manipulation exercises is to implement dropFirst, which will remove all references to the most recently bound variable. The type of dropFirst is given as:

dropFirst : List (Var (v :: vs)) -> List (Var vs)


As with Exercise 1, let’s start by defining and case-splitting on the argument:

dropFirst : List (Var (v :: vs)) -> List (Var vs)
dropFirst [] = ?dropFirst_rhs_0
dropFirst (x :: xs) = ?dropFirst_rhs_1


The first case is trivial: If we have no bound variables, then there is nothing to remove.

dropFirst [] = []


The second case is a bit more complicated. If we inspect the type of ?dropFirst_rhs_1 we get:

 0 v : Name
0 vs : List Name
x : Var (v :: vs)
xs : List (Var (v :: vs))
------------------------------
dropFirst_rhs_1 : List (Var vs)


Seems like we somehow need to deconstruct and reconstruct a Var term, in order to remove v from x (and there’ll probably be some recursion to deal with vs). The question is how to deconstruct x? I guess we could always try case-splitting again:

dropFirst ((MkVar p) :: xs) = ?dropFirst_rhs_2

0 v : Name
0 vs : List Name
0 p : IsVar n i (v :: vs)
xs : List (Var (v :: vs))
------------------------------
dropFirst_rhs_2 : List (Var vs)


Hmm, now we have the proof that the index i is a valid index for n in (v :: vs). It doesn’t really seem closer, but this is actually partway there: We now have a mention of the variable we’re trying to remove! Let’s case-split one more time, this time on p:

dropFirst ((MkVar First) :: xs) = ?dropFirst_rhs_3
dropFirst ((MkVar (Later x)) :: xs) = ?dropFirst_rhs_4


Ah ha! Now we’re finally getting somewhere! First is a proof that the variable v was the first thing in the list. How do we drop that? Well, we just do! We just don’t mention it on the RHS and continue removing the other references:

dropFirst ((MkVar First) :: xs) = dropFirst xs


For the second part, it helps a bit to look at the type of Later:

  Later : IsVar n i ns -> IsVar n (S i) (m :: ns)


This means: “If I have a proof that i is a valid index for n in ns, then I can extend ns with m, as long as I increment the index.” How does this help us, you might ask? Let’s have a look at the type for our final pattern-match in dropFirst again:

dropFirst ((MkVar (Later x)) :: xs) = ?dropFirst_rhs_4


What does our insight of what Later means determine for x? Don’t worry if you don’t get it; I didn’t until I inspected the type again:

 0 v : Name
0 vs : List Name
0 x : IsVar n i vs
xs : List (Var (v :: vs))
------------------------------
dropFirst_rhs_4 : List (Var vs)


Notice the type of x. Since Later determines that we could extend something as long as we incremented the index, this entails that v never was present in x in the first place; it occurs later! If you’re still not convinced, construct and inspect the type of the following let-expression:

dropFirst ((MkVar (Later x)) :: xs) = let var' = MkVar x in ?dropFirst_rhs_4

0 v : Name
0 vs : List Name
0 x : IsVar n i vs
xs : List (Var (v :: vs))
var' : Var vs
------------------------------
dropFirst_rhs_4 : List (Var vs)


Putting x back in a Var shows that the only names present in it are the list vs; there is no v. What this means is that we can keep (MkVar x) and recursively remove references to v from the rest. Like so:

dropFirst ((MkVar (Later x)) :: xs) = (MkVar x) :: dropFirst xs


The astute reader (i.e. not me when I was writing this), might have noticed a similarity between First and Later, and Z and S. This is because they’re essentially the same! You can think of First as a proof that the index Z is a valid index to retrieve the requested variable, and similarly for Later x and S n. This way of thinking about Var and indexes into lists of variables is very useful in the next exercise, so keep that in mind : )

Phew! For a warmup, it’s certainly picked up a bit. On to part 2…

### Part 2: Variable insertion

Having removed variable references from a scope, we now have to do the opposite: add them to a scope. But with the twist of having to insert the reference in the middle of the scope. Looking at the type, this is illustrated by the Var (outer ++ inner) part. The outer list is the outer scope and the inner list is the inner scope.

insertName : Var (outer ++ inner) -> Var (outer ++ n :: inner)


There is also note from Edwin:

The type here isn’t quite right, you’ll need to modify it slightly.

Now I’m going to slightly deviate here to explain in more detail what Var represents, since I got this completely wrong in the first draft of this post.

The Var type describes a “de Bruijn index”. These are notoriously difficult to get right and reason about, which is why Idris puts it in a type: Then the type-checker forces us to get it right. Having the function called insertName is actually slightly misleading: we’re technically not inserting anything, we’re “just” updating a de Bruijn index.

Looking at the type of insertName again, the argument has type

Var (outer ++ inner)


This could be read as “I have a de Bruijn index into the list outer ++ inner”. With that in mind, our return type reads as:

"I want a de Bruijn index into the list outer ++ n :: inner"

Now, what exactly does actually that mean? (The numbers Mason! What do they mean?!)

Lets consider, for example, outer and inner each having three elements. In this case, our indices would be from 0 to 5, like so:

    outer            inner
[   |   |   ] ++ [   |   |   ]
0   1   2        3   4   5


And what we want, is an index into something which looks like:

    outer                 inner
[   |   |   ] ++ n :: [   |   |   ]


Some guiding questions to help understand what needs doing:

How does this affect the indices of outer?

It doesn’t. They remain the same, i.e. 0 ↦ 0, 1 ↦ 1, and 2 ↦ 2.

How does this affect the indices of inner?

They all get incremented by 1 since n now precedes them, i.e. 3 ↦ 4, 4 ↦ 5, and 5 ↦ 6.

What is the range of the new index?

The new indices range from 0 to 6, since there’s an extra thing in the lists we’re indexing.

So far so good? Now what is the argument to the insertName function? It is an existing index over outer ++ innner! This is important because we need to know which part of the combined list it is an index into:

If it is an index into outer, what should be done?

Nothing! It should stay the same since it would still index the same place if there was something added to the list after it.

If it is an index into inner, what should be done?

It should get incremented, since our new index describes something where n occurs before inner.

Does your brain hurt yet? Mine is starting to…

In order to be able to reason about where the index falls, we need to know the shape of at least one of the lists. This is why there is that comment from Edwin: we need one of the implicit arguments in the definition, but they’re currently erased!

The issue is subtle, but becomes slightly clearer if we define, case-split, and inspect the type of the resulting hole without modifying the function type:

insertName : Var (outer ++ inner) -> Var (outer ++ n :: inner)
insertName (MkVar p) = ?insertName_rhs_0

0 n : Name
0 inner : List Name
0 outer : List Name
0 p : IsVar n i (outer ++ inner)
------------------------------
insertName_rhs_0 : Var (outer ++ (n :: inner))


Here we can see that p indexes the combined list, but we don’t know which part of it. And we can’t know because both inner and outer are erased by default.

Restore the editor to only contain the original function declaration. We need to be able to reason about at least one of the lists/scopes, and we saw that nothing needs to be done if we’re indexing outer. So lets start by making the outer scope runtime-accessible:

insertName : {outer : _} -> Var (outer ++ inner) -> Var (outer ++ n :: inner)


With the type now in the correct shape, generate a definition again, and bring the outer list into context in the definition:

insertName : {outer : _} -> Var (outer ++ inner) -> Var (outer ++ n :: inner)
insertName {outer} x = ?insertName_rhs


Having outer be runtime-accessible means we can pattern-match on it, which means we can know where we’re currently indexing. There are three distinct cases to consider:

1. Outer is empty. Where does the given index point and what should be done as a result?

If outer is empty, the only possibility is that the index was pointing into inner, and any index into inner needs incrementing (we’re adding stuff to the front of it), so it should always be incremented.

The next two cases depend on whether the index was 0 or not:

1. Outer is non-empty, but the given index is 0. Where does the given index point and what should be done as a result?

If the given index is 0, then it points to the start of the current outer (remember, we’re given an index over outer ++ inner), and so it should be left as it is (no need to update an index which occurs prior to where the scope extension happened).

1. Outer is non-empty, but the given index is also non-zero. What options are there in terms of where the index points?

If both outer is non-empty and the given index is non-zero, then there are two options: either the index points to somewhere in outer and we just haven discovered that yet; or it points to somewhere in inner and should always be updated.

How do we know which it is?

We check on a sub-term, i.e. a smaller outer and a smaller index, and see which of the two previously covered cases we hit first.

Please take your time to read over this several times and try and think it through in your head (or on paper!). It is a really complicated, but unfortunately also crucial part of handling variables, so having an idea of how it’s supposed to work is essential. I’ll go over two examples after the code has been written, so if you’re mostly convinced you get it, feel free to read ahead to double-check.

Right then! Let’s put this into code, shall we? We pulled outer into scope, so we’ll start by generating some insightful pattern-matches by case-splitting on it:

insertName {outer = []} x = ?insertName_rhs_0
insertName {outer = (y :: xs)} x = ?insertName_rhs_1


This tells us whether outer was empty (in which case we should always update the index) or whether it was non-empty.

We still don’t know what the index was, however, so case-split on both xs:

insertName {outer = []} (MkVar p) = ?insertName_rhs_2
insertName {outer = (y :: xs)} (MkVar p) = ?insertName_rhs_3


Now that we have the index, let’s code in the first scenario: outer is empty and we’ve been given an index to update. Since we know outer is empty, the index must point into inner, which we’re adding stuff in front of, so it needs to be updated. Checking the type of the ?insertName_rhs_2 hole confirms this:

 0 n : Name
0 inner : List Name
0 p : IsVar n i inner
------------------------------
insertName_rhs_2 : Var (n :: inner)


Note that p now only refers to inner (since [] ++ inner === inner), and the type of the hole says that the index must be into a list one bigger than inner. How do we update the index in this case? We increment it using Later! We can double-check that this has the desired effect by adding the following let-expression and examining the type of the hole again:

insertName {outer = []} (MkVar p) = let 0 p' = Later p in ?insertName_rhs_2

0 n : Name
0 inner : List Name
0 p : IsVar n i inner
0 p' : IsVar n (S i) (?m :: inner)
------------------------------
insertName_rhs_2 : Var (n :: inner)


Here we can see that the type of our new index, p', contains an incremented number and indexes a list where something occurs in front of inner. The types are keeping us sane while we do the de Bruijn index updates! (We have to write 0 p' in the let-expression because p is erased and so we’re only allowed to create new expressions from it if those are also erased.)

Put the updated index in a Var to complete the definition of the first case:

insertName {outer = []} (MkVar p) = MkVar (Later p)


For the remaining cases, we need to know what the index was.

insertName {outer = (y :: xs)} (MkVar p) = ?insertName_rhs_3


Case-splitting on p gives us:

insertName {outer = (y :: xs)} (MkVar First) = ?insertName_rhs_4
insertName {outer = (y :: xs)} (MkVar (Later x)) = ?insertName_rhs_5


In the first case, First is the same as saying that the given index was zero (i.e. it indexes the front of outer). In this case we should not update the index! It stays the same since the update concerns a position further down in the combined list, so just reconstruct the index as it was:

insertName {outer = (y :: xs)} (MkVar First) = (MkVar First)


Now we get to the truly challenging bit! The index is non-zero, but the outer list is also non-empty, and as a result we don’t know what to do with the index. To update or not to update, that is the question.

insertName {outer = (y :: xs)} (MkVar (Later x)) = ?insertName_rhs_5


Are we stuck? No! If we decrement the index, it must now point into the list xs ++ inner (by the pattern-match, it originally pointed into the list (y :: xs) ++ inner). This brings us one step closer to knowing where the index points: Either xs will turn out to be empty, in which case the index points to somewhere in inner and we should update it; or the reduced index will turn out to be zero, in which case it points to the start of xs and should be left alone.

We do this by recursion. Since outer is an implicit argument, Idris automatically figures out that xs is the new outer:

insertName {outer = (y :: xs)} (MkVar (Later x)) =
let rec = insertName (MkVar x) in ?insertName_rhs_5   -- rec has {outer=xs}


This line may look like it’s not doing anything, but note that we have put x back in a Var without the Later that previously surrounded it. This is the same as when we recurse on n from an (S n)-expression, so the given index has been decremented.

If we inspect the type of the hole now, we get:

 0 n : Name
0 inner : List Name
y : Name
xs : List Name
0 x : IsVar n i (xs ++ inner)
rec : Var (xs ++ (?n :: inner))
------------------------------
insertName_rhs_5 : Var (y :: (xs ++ (n :: inner)))


Since insertName returns something of type Var, we need to remember to extract the new index:

insertName {outer = (y :: xs)} (MkVar (Later x)) =
let (MkVar x') = insertName (MkVar x) in ?insertName_rhs_5

0 n : Name
0 inner : List Name
y : Name
xs : List Name
0 x : IsVar n i (xs ++ inner)
0 x' : IsVar n i (xs ++ (?n :: inner))
------------------------------
insertName_rhs_5 : Var (y :: (xs ++ (n :: inner)))


Hey look at that! We’ve done it!! Our new index, x', is an index into xs followed by something in front of inner. That’s exactly what we were trying to do! However, if we try to wrap things up by returning it, Idris complains:

insertName {outer = (y :: xs)} (MkVar (Later x)) =
let (MkVar x') = insertName (MkVar x) in MkVar x'

-- Error: While processing right hand side of insertName. Can't solve constraint
-- between: xs ++ (?n :: inner)
-- and y :: (xs ++ (n :: inner)).


This is where the types keep us in check! In order to recurse on a smaller term, we decremented the index. Which means the recursively updated index is off-by-one! We’ve recursed correctly, but forgotten to restore the larger scope which also includes y. It is very good that the type makes Idris catch this, otherwise de Bruijn manipulation would be is extremely easy to get wrong! Fix things by remembering that the index actually needs to be one greater since we decremented it in the recursive call:

insertName {outer = (y :: xs)} (MkVar (Later x)) =
let (MkVar x') = insertName (MkVar x) in MkVar (Later x')


Now. If you’re not convinced that this actually does what I’ve said it does, I don’t blame you. I wasn’t convinced either. So let’s go through a couple of examples:

Example 1

Consider once more the case where both outer and inner contain three elements, indexed 0 through 5:

    outer            inner
[   |   |   ] ++ [   |   |   ]
0   1   2        3   4   5


If we’re given, for example, the index 1 as the argument to the insertName function, what happens?

index         outer            inner
1       [   |   |   ] ++ [   |   |   ]
0   1   2        3   4   5


Neither of the first two patterns match: outer is non-empty, and the index is non-zero. So we recurse, reducing both the index and the outer list in size:

index         outer            inner
1       [   |   |   ] ++ [   |   |   ]
0   1   2        3   4   5

index         outer            inner
0           [   |   ] ++ [   |   |   ]
0   1        2   3   4


(Note here that since our combined scope shrunk, so did the indices! This (hopefully) makes sense: we’re considering a smaller problem, with a slightly different, smaller scope, but indices start at 0.)

Here we’ve hit our second case! The given index is zero, but there is still stuff in outer, so the index must point to the start of outer. What do we do with those indices? We leave them alone since adding things to the front of inner wouldn’t change where the index points. So our returned index stays the same as the given one, i.e. 0.

index         outer            inner
1       [   |   |   ] ++ [   |   |   ]
0   1   2        3   4   5

index         outer            inner
0           [   |   ] ++ [   |   |   ]
0   1        2   3   4

ANSWER: Don't change anything, leave index as given: 0


HOWEVER, once this comes back up the recursive call, we can see the index is clearly wrong: it was correct in a smaller scope, but not the larger scope; specifically, it’s off by one! So we restore the index to its correct state by incrementing it. Incrementing 0 gives 1, which is the index we were given. We, the human, know it pointed into outer (check the diagrams), so we’ve left it alone, which was the point! Hurray!

index         outer                 inner
1       [   |   |   ]   ++    [   |   |   ]
0   1   2             3   4   5

|
v

index         outer                 inner
0+1= 1    [   |   |   ] ++ n :: [   |   |   ]
0   1   2      3      4   5   6


Example 2

Consider yet again the case where both outer and inner contain three elements, indexed 0 through 5:

    outer            inner
[   |   |   ] ++ [   |   |   ]
0   1   2        3   4   5


Now if we’re given, for example, the index 4 as the argument to the insertName function, what happens?

index         outer            inner
4       [   |   |   ] ++ [   |   |   ]
0   1   2        3   4   5


Neither of the first two patterns match: outer is non-empty, and the index is non-zero. So we recurse, reducing both the index and the outer list in size. And we keep doing this while neither of the first two patterns of insertName, neither of our base-cases, match:

index         outer            inner
4       [   |   |   ] ++ [   |   |   ]
0   1   2        3   4   5

index         outer            inner
3           [   |   ] ++ [   |   |   ]
0   1        2   3   4

index         outer            inner
2               [   ] ++ [   |   |   ]
0        1   2   3

index         outer            inner
1                   Ø ++ [   |   |   ]
0   1   2


This is our first pattern! The outer part is empty, so the given index must point somewhere in the inner list (and indeed we, the human, can see this). Any index into inner must be incremented, since we’re adding stuff to the front of inner, so we increment the index by 1, giving 2. We can confirm this would match the same place by drawing the result of prepending n:

index         outer                 inner
1+1= 2                Ø ++ n :: [   |   |   ]
0      1   2   3


Now. As with the previous example, we did some subtraction and reducing to reach this point. For every recursive call, we removed an element from outer and subtracted one from the given index. In order to get the correct result, we therefore need to undo this. Travelling back up the recursive calls, we undo this step three times, resulting in a final index of 2 + 3 = 5. Is this correct?

index         outer                 inner
4       [   |   |   ]   ++    [   |   |   ]
0   1   2             3   4   5

|
v

index         outer                 inner
2+3= 5    [   |   |   ] ++ n :: [   |   |   ]
0   1   2      3      4   5   6


Yes it is! Everything lines up, and our updated index points to the same location as before the combined list was extended! Fantastic!!

So yeah… That’s de Bruijn indices… A good warmup exercise, huh?… Please go for a walk or a cup of coffee or something at this point. It took so long to get here, with so many tiny details to get exactly right, so I don’t blame you if you feel mentally fatigued by this point.

Well done for making it to the end of this part! I hope it made somewhat sense.

And now for something completely different. (Which is fortunately a bit simpler, in my opinion.)

## Exercise 3 - Lists and Trees

Exercise 3 has us do some more exercises with proofs and lemmas. We start with lists.

### Part 1: Appending Nil does nothing

The first part is to prove that appending Nil (typically written []) to a list doesn’t change the list. This one is not trivial enough for Idris to just find: If we ask Idris to generate the definition, it comes back with a No search results message. So we have to do a bit of work (although not too much).

As always, creating a definition and case-splitting on the argument is a good initial approach:

appendNilNeutral : (xs : List a) -> xs ++ [] = xs
appendNilNeutral [] = ?appendNilNeutral_rhs_0
appendNilNeutral (x :: xs) = ?appendNilNeutral_rhs_1


In the first case, we are appending Nil to itself. That sounds trivial. And indeed, a proof-search on ?appendNilNeutral_rhs_0 finds that it is Refl:

appendNilNeutral : (xs : List a) -> xs ++ [] = xs
appendNilNeutral [] = Refl
appendNilNeutral (x :: xs) = ?appendNilNeutral_rhs_1


The second case, the recursive/inductive step, is a bit more tricky. We can get some help by asking about the type of the hole:

 0 a : Type
x : a
xs : List a
------------------------------
appendNilNeutral_rhs_1 : x :: (xs ++ []) = x :: xs


So, we need to prove that appending Nil to the tail of the list doesn’t change it. As I hinted to earlier, we can use recursion here (since we’ll either need to prove this for the next head'/tail' pair, or the tail will be empty, in which case we’ve won). We also need to use this proof in our general proof. That sounds like a job for rewrite! (I’ve shortened the hole name a bit, in order to make it fit nicely in the code block).

appendNilNeutral (x :: xs) = rewrite appendNilNeutral xs in ?aNN_rhs_1


This type-checks and Idris is happy so far. If we now inspect the hole to see what’s changed, we find:

 0 a : Type
x : a
xs : List a
------------------------------
aNN_rhs_1 : x :: xs = x :: xs


Well that certainly improved things! We’ve won!! The logic here, is that since Idris now knows that appending Nil to the tail of the list doesn’t change the tail, all that remains is to prove that reconstructing the list (from our destructive pattern-match on x :: xs) doesn’t change the list. That definitely sounds trivial! And indeed, a proof-search on ?aNN_rhs_1 finds it is Refl, completing the definition:

appendNilNeutral : (xs : List a) -> xs ++ [] = xs
appendNilNeutral [] = Refl
appendNilNeutral (x :: xs) = rewrite appendNilNeutral xs in Refl


### Part 2: List appending is associative

Next up is to prove that appending lists is associative, i.e. it doesn’t matter if we append list b to list a and then append list c to the result, or if we first append list c to list b and then append that result to list a. In mathsy notation (also seen in the type):

xs ++ (ys ++ zs) = (xs ++ ys) ++ zs


This one appears difficult, but actually isn’t. Start by defining and case-splitting, but only on the first argument (xs).

appendAssoc :  (xs : List a) -> (ys : List a) -> (zs : List a)
-> xs ++ (ys ++ zs) = (xs ++ ys) ++ zs
appendAssoc [] ys zs = ?appendAssoc_rhs_0
appendAssoc (x :: xs) ys zs = ?appendAssoc_rhs_1


As I said, this one is a bit deceptive: Before we case-split any further, let’s start by inspecting what we currently have:

 0 a : Type
zs : List a
ys : List a
------------------------------
appendAssoc_rhs_0 : ys ++ zs = ys ++ zs


Hmm, that doesn’t seem complicated… Is it just Refl?… A proof-search on ?appendAssoc_rhs_0 says “Yes”! This is a great example of remembering to check whether we actually need to split further, or if the current information is enough to solve the problem. Note that we’ve not imported Data.List or anything here, so this is purely Idris being clever and figuring out that append is associative for two lists, based on the function definition.

Now we need to prove the general case. Again, let’s inspect the information we currently have:

 0 a : Type
x : a
xs : List a
zs : List a
ys : List a
------------------------------
appendAssoc_rhs_1 : x :: (xs ++ (ys ++ zs)) = x :: ((xs ++ ys) ++ zs)


The head (x) has been pulled out of the append call. We now need to prove that extending the list with x doesn’t change it as long as ++ is associative. Does this seem familiar? It is the same idea as with appendNilNeutral! Recurse on xs:

appendAssoc (x :: xs) ys zs = rewrite appendAssoc xs ys zs in ?appendAssoc_rhs_1


If we now inspect the hole, we get:

 0 a : Type
x : a
xs : List a
zs : List a
ys : List a
------------------------------
appendAssoc_rhs_1 : x :: ((xs ++ ys) ++ zs) = x :: ((xs ++ ys) ++ zs)


Remember that the logic is that we’ll either keep recursing on the tail, or reach the base-case [] ys zs, in which case we’ve won. We know we’ll eventually reach the base-case since lists in Idris cannot be infinite and we’re removing an element each time, so we know that eventually everything will be fine. All that remains to prove is that restoring x to the front of the list doesn’t change the recursive append result. This is trivial and completes the proof/definition:

appendAssoc :  (xs : List a) -> (ys : List a) -> (zs : List a)
-> xs ++ (ys ++ zs) = (xs ++ ys) ++ zs
appendAssoc [] ys zs = Refl
appendAssoc (x :: xs) ys zs = rewrite appendAssoc xs ys zs in Refl


This also concludes the parts on lists. Now we move on to trees.

### Part 3: Rotating trees left

The first part of the exercise on trees is to implement a lemma. We can look at the type to get some information as to what this lemma is meant to show:

   n : a
n' : a
rightr : Tree ys
rightl : Tree xs
left : Tree xs
0 xs : List a
------------------------------
rotateLemma :  Tree ((xs ++ (n :: xs)) ++ (n' :: ys))
-> Tree (xs ++ (n :: (xs ++ (n' :: ys))))


This lemma, you may not be surprised to hear, uses parts of the previous exercise. We need to show that we can reorder appending in the context of trees, which will inevitably involve manipulating the lists in the nodes. Specifically, we need to show that it is okay to sequence the operations, instead of doing them out-of-order and then combining those results.

Now, this lemma is a good bit more difficult than the previous stuff. You will probably not get it right by just trying to brute-force coding a solution (I tried, it didn’t go well). When the problem just wouldn’t budge, I asked Edwin for a hint. He suggested trying to write the proof on paper first, and then transfer it into Idris, which is what I’m going to suggest you stop and do at this point as well.

There are hints below, but I’ll save you from the first pitfall I immediately fell into: We need to prove that the right side can be written as the left side, and not the other way around. Why, you might ask? Because what we’re trying to prove is that we can slot the expression from the first argument of rotateLemma into the lemma’s rhs without any problems; that expression is the only thing we have access to after all.

So your mission, should you choose to accept it, is to prove on paper that

Tree (xs ++ (n :: (xs ++ (n' :: ys))))


can be written as

Tree ((xs ++ (n :: xs)) ++ (n' :: ys))


Good luck!

Hint 1

Remember that we’ve proved that append (++) is associative. How might this help in terms of cons (::)?

Hint 2

Recall, from the defininion of ++, that a :: as could technically be written [a] ++ as.

Solution

$xs ++ (n :: (xs’ ++ (n’ :: ys)))$

by definition of ++: (1)

$\Leftrightarrow xs ++ ([n] ++ (xs’ ++ ([n’] ++ ys)))$

by associativity on xs, [n], and xs' ++ ([n'] ++ ys): (2)

$\Leftrightarrow (xs ++ [n]) ++ (xs’ ++ ([n’] ++ ys))$

by associativity on xs ++ [n], xs', and [n'] ++ ys: (3)

$\Leftrightarrow ((xs ++ [n]) ++ xs’) ++ ([n’] ++ ys)$

by associativity on xs, [n], and xs': (4)

$\Leftrightarrow (xs ++ ([n] ++ xs’)) ++ ([n’] ++ ys)$

by definition of ++: (5)

$\Leftrightarrow (xs ++ (n :: xs’)) ++ (n’ :: ys)$

$\Box$

Nicely done! With that, we can now transfer the proof into Idris. If you kept track of what rules you applied where (which is generally a good idea when writing formal proofs), this should be almost trivial.

If you have a shorter solution… (don’t worry if not)

If you read the above solution and thought “What on Earth?? My solution is just one line”, then you’re likely correct (put it into Idris to check). There is a much shorter solution, and I’ll come back to it, but for now we’re going to take the long route.

Let’s start by lifting the rotateLemma to a new function:

rotateLemma :  (n : a) -> (n' : a) -> Tree ys -> Tree xs_0 -> Tree xs
-> Tree ((xs ++ (n :: xs_0)) ++ (n' :: ys))
-> Tree (xs ++ (n :: (xs_0 ++ (n' :: ys))))

[...]

rotateL (Node left n (Node rightl n' rightr))
= rotateLemma n n' rightr rightl left $Node (Node left n rightl) n' rightr  As with the lemmas in Exercise 1, Idris has included absolutely everything we could need, since it doesn’t know exactly what we need. It has also revealed that the two xs in the original hole are actually different: there is an xs and an xs_0/xs'. This changes the paper proof a tiny bit, so make sure to change that now (essentially just make sure to keep track of the name, the rest is the same). With that done, let’s tidy things up a bit. As indicated by the initial layout of the exercise, we don’t actually need any of the extra information Idris has included: rotateLemma : Tree ((xs ++ (n :: xs')) ++ (n' :: ys)) -> Tree (xs ++ (n :: (xs' ++ (n' :: ys)))) [...] rotateL (Node left n (Node rightl n' rightr)) = rotateLemma$ Node (Node left n rightl) n' rightr


Much better! Now start by interactively sketching the definition of rotateLemma:

rotateLemma :  Tree ((xs ++ (n :: xs')) ++ (n' :: ys))
-> Tree (xs ++ (n :: (xs' ++ (n' :: ys))))
rotateLemma x =
?rotateLemma_rhs


Inspecting ?rotateLemma_rhs we get the following type information:

 0 xs_0 : List a
0 xs : List a
0 ys : List a
0 n' : a
0 n : a
x : Tree ((xs ++ (n :: xs_0)) ++ (n' :: ys))
------------------------------
rotateLemma_rhs : Tree (xs ++ (n :: (xs_0 ++ (n' :: ys))))


This is where our paper proof comes in! Idris can figure out that a :: as corresponds to [a] ++ as, so we don’t need to rewrite that. Instead, go straight to the first associativity step:

rotateLemma x =
rewrite appendAssoc xs [n] (xs' ++ ([n'] ++ ys)) in
?rotateLemma_rhs


This improves things a bit:

 0 xs' : List a
0 xs : List a
0 ys : List a
0 n' : a
0 n : a
x : Tree ((xs ++ (n :: xs')) ++ (n' :: ys))
------------------------------
rotateLemma_rhs : Tree ((xs ++ [n]) ++ (xs' ++ (n' :: ys)))


We’re successfully rearranging the terms and parentheses!! This is great news for formalising the proof in Idris!

Adding in the second associative step improves things further:

rotateLemma x =
rewrite appendAssoc xs [n] (xs' ++ ([n'] ++ ys)) in
rewrite appendAssoc (xs ++ [n]) xs' ([n'] ++ ys) in
?rotateLemma_rhs

0 xs' : List a
0 xs : List a
0 ys : List a
0 n' : a
0 n : a
x : Tree ((xs ++ (n :: xs')) ++ (n' :: ys))
------------------------------
rotateLemma_rhs : Tree (((xs ++ [n]) ++ xs') ++ (n' :: ys))


Almost there! However, if we try to add our third step, Idris complains:

rotateLemma x =
rewrite appendAssoc xs [n] (xs' ++ ([n'] ++ ys)) in
rewrite appendAssoc (xs ++ [n]) xs' ([n'] ++ ys) in
rewrite appendAssoc xs [n] xs' in
?rotateLemma_rhs

-- Error: While processing right hand side of rotateLemma. Rewriting by
-- xs ++ (?u ++ xs') = (xs ++ ?u) ++ xs'
-- did not change type
-- Tree (((xs ++ [n]) ++ xs') ++ ([n'] ++ ys)).


What’s gone wrong? Well, the problem is that we have the left hand side of an equality, namely:

xs ++ ([n] ++ xs') = (xs ++ [n]) ++ xs'


Whereas what we actually need is the right hand side:

(xs ++ [n]) ++ xs' = xs ++ ([n] ++ xs')


In short, we need to move the parentheses the other way.

One way of doing this could be to define some appendAssoc' which proves the other direction. But fortunately, this problem of lhs vs rhs is a fairly common problem and Idris provides a built-in function for it: sym

> :doc sym
Builtin.sym : (0 _ : x = y) -> y = x
Symmetry of propositional equality.


Using sym, we can include the final step:

rotateLemma x =
rewrite appendAssoc xs [n] (xs' ++ ([n'] ++ ys)) in
rewrite appendAssoc (xs ++ [n]) xs' ([n'] ++ ys) in
rewrite sym $appendAssoc xs [n] xs' in ?rotateLemma_rhs 0 xs' : List a 0 xs : List a 0 ys : List a 0 n' : a 0 n : a x : Tree ((xs ++ (n :: xs')) ++ (n' :: ys)) ------------------------------ rotateLemma_rhs : Tree ((xs ++ (n :: xs')) ++ (n' :: ys))  Aha! Now the type of the hole matches the type of x; we’ve won!! Complete the definition by slotting x into the x-shaped hole: rotateLemma x = rewrite appendAssoc xs [n] (xs' ++ ([n'] ++ ys)) in rewrite appendAssoc (xs ++ [n]) xs' ([n'] ++ ys) in rewrite sym$ appendAssoc xs [n] xs' in
x


Almost there! For the final part of this exercise, we “just” need to rotate trees right as well.

### Part 4: Rotating trees right

Unsurprisingly, this is going to be very similar to the rotateL exercise.

This should hopefully be almost second-nature by now: Start by generating a definition and case-splitting on the argument:

rotateR : Tree xs -> Tree xs
rotateR Leaf = ?rotateR_rhs_0
rotateR (Node left n right) = ?rotateR_rhs_1


In the first case, we’re rotating a tree consisting only of a single leaf. There isn’t anything to do in this case, so we just return the leaf:

rotateR Leaf = Leaf


In the second case, however, we need to do something similar to rotateL. But here we’re trying to rotate the tree right (or clockwise), not left, so we care about the mirror-case compared to rotateL: the right half of the tree is general, the left half of the tree is interesting. Let’s start by defining that:

rotateR (Node Leaf n right) = ?rotateR_rhs_1
rotateR ((Node leftl n' leftr) n right) = ?rotateR_rhs_2


In the case where the left side of the tree is a leaf, we cannot rotate the tree right, so we just return the existing tree:

rotateR (Node Leaf n right) = Node Leaf n right


When we do have a left side of the tree, we need to:

1. Move the left node to be the current/top node,
2. move the former top node to be the right child of the old left node,
3. and move the former left node’s right subtree (the “left-right” tree, if you will) to be the left branch of the old top node.

(This is hard to explain in text, so I’d strongly recommend drawing a diagram to better illustrate things.)

As with rotateL, Idris won’t just accept that the two trees are the same. We need to help it by defining a lemma. Put a hole in its place for now:

rotateR (Node (Node leftl n' leftr) n right) =
?rotateRLemma $Node leftl n' (Node leftr n right)  Inspecting the type of this hole gives us some insight into what needs to be done:  n' : a leftr : Tree ys leftl : Tree xs n : a right : Tree ys 0 xs : List a ------------------------------ rotateRLemma : Tree (xs ++ (n' :: (ys ++ (n :: ys)))) -> Tree ((xs ++ (n' :: ys)) ++ (n :: ys))  This looks oddly familiar… It’s the inverse of rotateLemma! Now, I’d love to say that there is some sym-like function we could just stick in front of rotateLemma, but unfortunately not. Since not all functions are invertible, we have to write this one by hand. Start by lifting the hole to a new function and cleaning up all the extra stuff Idris adds: rotateRLemma : Tree (xs ++ (n' :: (ys' ++ (n :: ys)))) -> Tree ((xs ++ (n' :: ys')) ++ (n :: ys)) [...] rotateR (Node (Node leftl n' leftr) n right) = rotateRLemma$ Node leftl n' (Node leftr n right)


And then generate the start of a definition:

rotateRLemma :  Tree (xs ++ (n' :: (ys' ++ (n :: ys))))
-> Tree ((xs ++ (n' :: ys')) ++ (n :: ys))
rotateRLemma x = ?rotateRLemma_rhs


Once again, remember that we are working right-to-left here and not left-to-right; we’re trying to slot x into the ?rotateRLemma_rhs hole. Now you could go about this the long way as with the original rotateLemma, but there is a shorter way. It just requires a bit more thinking.

Start by looking at the appends (the ++ operations). Those are the things we want to reorder using appendAssoc. There are 3 terms:

• xs
• n' :: ys'
• n :: ys
If you came up with a one-line solution to 3.3…

If you came up with a one-line solution to 3.3, then there is an inverse for the definition of this proof. It’s simply sym. Stick that in front of the same thing you wrote as the definition for 3.3 and you’re done!

These can be reordered using a single call to appendAssoc: the inner grouping is between the first two terms (xs and (n' :: ys)), and the outer grouping is with the third term (n :: ys). As I mentioned earlier though, we’re going the other way from rotateL, and so we need a sym for the single appendAssoc call to work. Putting it all together gives:

rotateRLemma x =
rewrite sym $appendAssoc xs (n' :: ys') (n :: ys) in ?rotateRLemma_rhs  I don’t blame you if you didn’t spot this in 3.3. I didn’t until I wrote this and went “Hang on a minute! That should just work for 3.3!!”. It requires being able to squint at the type right, which is a skill/art that unfortunately just takes some practice. Hopefully taking both the long and the short way has helped a bit with this : ) If we inspect the hole in our one-line definition we get:  0 ys : List a 0 ys' : List a 0 xs : List a 0 n : a 0 n' : a x : Tree (xs ++ (n' :: (ys' ++ (n :: ys)))) ------------------------------ rotateRLemma_rhs : Tree (xs ++ (n' :: (ys' ++ (n :: ys))))  Which is the type of x! As with rotateLemma, slot x into the x-shaped hole to complete the definition: rotateRLemma x = rewrite sym$ appendAssoc xs (n' :: ys') (n :: ys) in x


And just to neatly finish with having the symmetry in the source code: if you haven’t already, tidy up the definition of the first rotateLemma:

rotateLemma x =
rewrite appendAssoc xs (n :: xs') (n' :: ys) in x


(N.B.: Due to the way Idris names things when lifting the holes and the fact that we’re dealing with the left tree vs the right tree, you’ll need to swap n and n', as well as rename ys' to xs')

## End of warmup

Well that certainly took a while! I was originally going to write this as a walkthrough of the entire SPLV'20 TinyIdris course, but then the warmup alone got to over 7000 words and I thought “Hmm, maybe this should be multiple parts…” ^^;;

Thanks for reading this far, I hope it was helpful! : )

##### Thomas Ekström Hansen
###### PhD student in Computer Science

My research interests include low-level programming, type systems, and formal methods.

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